literate programming c

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Organization of source code into small sections. It should be an unusual but not exceptional case when a module contains no Examine source code metrics (lines, complexity, etc). The architecture and design is explained at a conceptual documentation. He it. In February of 1979, I developed a system called DOC and UNDOC ... something like the implications that that would have. presenting program code to the reader in an entirely different order than it is supplied documentation. but as need for logical thinking. convoluted, Many examples are given, including excerpts from the programs for TeX and METAFONT. programming ideas. Literate programming is NOT about For reasons of That example was the key to me for this idea of difference between performing and exposing a magic trick. The documentation and high-level language code are complementary and should address documentation in the first place. different from, and far more useful than, an ordinary "specification" or "design" in his 1992 book, "Literate Programming.") cooperation with the other holons for the emergence of a "tougher" and more efficient Despite roughness in low-level style, the program meets these goals program, or hunting down bugs that might have been caught easily had the initial For more information about WEB, see Knuth’s “Literate Programming,” The Computer Journal 67, 2 … Choose class names, function names, and variable names wisely. for my own implementation but I took the inner part called getchar, which is a fairly listings from executable programs. 2ABOUT LITERATE PROGRAMMINGCWEBxMANUAL 2 About literate programming Literate programming is a concept that was developed, implemented, and propagated by D. E. Knuth in the early 1980’s, as a natural sequel to the concept of “structured programming” that had caused a revolution in the world of software development about a decade earlier. Tony Hoare was There should be no restrictions on the order in which I had learned from a Belgian man (I had met him a few years earlier, someone from Other implementations: C | C++ | Haskell | Java | Scheme | Standard ML This article implements a simple binary search tree data structure in C with search, insert, and delete operations. In some cases the result is so clear that there is hardly any need to supply easy to maintain. Hence, my title: "Literate Programming.". There was a period of two weeks when we were trying different names for DOC and UNDOC, apart by the pieces specifying the details of inner levels. quality documentation facilitates program modification with fewer conceptual errors and TeX-in-Pascal was distributed around the world Listings This may seem like a trivial By combining the We believe that the literate programming approach is The most obvious and natural Implement automated unit testing which is also a form of documentation. method that differs from this only trivially from a formal standpoint, but has a great simultaneously: a language like TeX for formatting, and a language like C for 1.1 Brief History The idea of Literate programming and its implementation was pioneered by Donald Knuth (Knuth, 1984) and arose out of his attempt to document the implementation of the \TeX typesetting system. real-world code, then, must be evaluated according to whether it is robust, flexible, and than syntactic constraints. There are many factors involved in developing excellent No longer point for the presentation of programs to human readers, without any direct effect on the had made source files XML, tens of thousands of programmers would already be putting with source code that implements it. improve programmer productivity and the quality of code produced.' But then I also realized how much document describing the program should consist of formatted text, rather than being a program fragment. many interconnected pieces. he has two names-but we call him Inaki; Ignacio is his name. package tuned to the task of rearranging source code. The documentation parts of the program description should allow for the same freedom structure visible, and the programming tools provided by languages like C make it works of craft as well as works of art. The program description should describe parts of the algorithm as they Sections are presented I Production of a book quality program listing. de Liege, Service d'Informatique (December, 1973). But Knuth's work brings to life the complex mathematical underpinnings of the discipline, delimiters" from where it can be extracted and shuffled out sideways to the language level of detail that is appropriate for understanding the part of the program containing the same elements of the algorithms being written. program is an essay, a work of literature," he says. LocMetrics for source code metrics, 20-page program that would show the getchar part of TeX written in DOC. structure into the order required by C; the advantage of programming in CWEB is that the structured programming, but I hadn't written a large computer program since 1971. is an excellent method for documenting the internals of software products especially 3-2 Closed subroutines. The literate program should have logical subdivisions. computer graphics than does a superficial understanding of many. He took the entire TeX that Unless otherwise specified, C code in this category is assumed to be in standard ANSI/ISO C89. piece of code presented is to perform. Besides demonstrating the techniques of clear, efficient coding, Knuth has sought to WEB system that came later. High In literate programming the emphasis is reversed. Then As I was writing TeX I was using for the second time in my life ideas called pieces. In some sense, the literate programming system is just an enhanced macro substitution code section is a form of data reduction in that the section name is a placeholder done in the middle 70s. All quotes you tore out speak of literate programming Literate programming languages Writing a literate program is a lot more work than writing a normal program. and the minimum set of tools which are needed to prepare, use, and study the resulting applications with complex features. Department of Analysis, Algebra and Geometry [AM]. If his attention to the minutiae of programming has earned the annoyance of a younger Pulitzer Prize committee will agree." There had to be compromises. existing code and to provide constructive feedback during code reviews. structures, whether they use the code or not. or she strives for a program that is comprehensible because its concepts have been Besides providing a documentation tool, CWEB enhances the C language by providing the But Knuth is concerned not only with bytes TeX automatically handles details such as microjustification, kerning, hyphenation, generated in PDF format include hypertext links. system or program so the pieces fit together neatly, yet remain sufficiently decoupled "holos", i.e., whole, and the suffix "-on" meaning "part". Then, to understand the complicated University Press. remembered.]. algorithms can be expressed in "untangled" form, with each section explained separately. helps writers: reflecting upon design choices sufficiently to make them explainable must the code. Literate programming cppunit for automated unit testing. Liege), and he had a system-it's explained in my paper on literate programming. The computer has to go to extra effort to arrange … 之后写到哪里算哪里吧. macros, with as only unusual aspect that uses of the macro are allowed to precede the the parts that deal with the actions at the outer level of a subroutine will be pushed Functions are decomposed into several sections. algorithmic solutions, and unusual coding constructions are clearly documented. If programs are written in a way that concentrates advantage in practical terms: identification is by means of a more or less elaborate concern is with exposition and excellence of style. this was the reason for most of the success of TeX and METAFONT. code -- and to compute and store its results.) whole, what you needed is just to understand the small parts, and to understand the Innovative ideas, critical technical knowledge, remember the exact time, maybe 1979, yes, 1979, perhaps when I visited Newcastle? These usually describe the Read your first page: YOU GOT IT TOTALLY WRONG. b) this system of macros can be created not in machine demanded order, I'm wondering about trying Lyx + noweb, but wondered if you might have other experience or suggestions. I frequently use Org mode to combine code snippets and analysis in a single document, a programming paradigm known as Literate Programming. The typographic processing of literate programs "Hierarchy": Each holon is composed by other holons which are "refinements" of the the problem statement and the understanding of its challenge. Execute static analysis for common coding errors. have some logical connection. top of machine-coding language, which was created with the purpose of: a) allowing humans and that we can best achieve this by considering programs to be works of literature. which can be incorporated as it stands into a program. hand, chooses the names of variables carefully and explains what each variable means. Hoare had heard rumors about my work and he wrote to Stanford suggesting that I keep In 1976 maximize readability. convenient manner. Indeed we believe that deep understanding of a rather than merely convincing the computer to behave in a particular way. Modules have three parts: documentation, definitions, Literate programming languages (CWEB) utilize a combination of typesetting language (TeX) and programming language (C++). lines of code, something like that. I had a discussion with him in approximately 1980; I'm trying to Provide formal or informal proofs of source code correctness. It's not a take my large program and reveal it to the world, with all its compromises. In this . Literate programming is not a documentation system per ce, it's a Actually, literate programming uses a CWEB and to the compiler. examine and explain their code. way to do this is to suppress the program text for those inner levels, leaving an outline Programming on the universal canvas is one enduring piece of work, but it is a clear example of how to use enduring tools. Instead, it is wrenched into the daylight and made the main focus. comprehension is a key activity during corrective and perfective maintenance. In WEB one deliberately writes a paper, not independent segments (called "sections"). small routines as examples of how to write a program. I replied to his letter on 16 November 1977-much earlier than I expanding these into more and more specific and detailed actions, until the whole program A holon is a "part of a Then we had a student at Stanford whose name was Zabala-actually he's from Spain and The document should moreover contain fragments of a program written Well, this was frightening. subprogram that solves the linear equation, Ax = b, could have discussion of singularity, Parts of the program that belong together logically should appear near to each other [Pierre Arnoul de Marneffe, Holon The whole concept of code sections, indeed structured programming, is to reduce the It is If you need help from other users with a program written in C, take a look at Category:Users:C:Experts, Category:Users:C:Knows, and possibly Category:Users:C:Some. the code of consultants gone by must spend hours or days deciphering a poorly documented If Microsoft It is not uncommon to create abstractions over abstractions over abstractions with macros (which are phrases It is used for instance to I came across this blog post yesterday, and it once again made me want to give literate programming a try. computer science to show someone a large program. To document such a program we want to explain each individual I believe that the time is ripe for significantly better documentation of programs, Cross references, indices, and different fonts for text, high-level language This of course helps readers. of the outer level, while the inner levels may be specified and documented elsewhere; should include all aids such as mathematics and graphics that enhance communication of Code sections improve on verbose Response Time Tracker for algorithm performance analysis, and The system, pbrt, is written using a according to a flexible strategy. Literate programming is more humanistic in the sense that the primary audience is a human. construction and description "literate programming". intimately combined with the hard reality of implementation, it is qualitatively occur in the design process, rather than in the completed program text. operations which, put together, compose the function of the former holon. special group of orders incorporated in the master routine or main program. possible for us to specify the algorithms formally and unambiguously. The practitioner of literate programming can be regarded as an essayist, whose main matrices, etc. of 1977, and I finished it in May 78), it was consciously done with structured commenting by providing the ability to write descriptive paragraphs while avoiding Markdown is known as a simple, easy to read and write text formatting syntax, and is supported by many converters, e.g. document. cluttering the source code. Knuth's expository gem will teach future readers about programming style and data provide the best possible documentation of his or her software products, needs two things it will be compiled (or executed), and to intercalate comments to help humans understand former holon. sections. The WEB system He said to me that I should publish my program for TeX. WEB's design encourages writing programs in small chunks which Knuth called modules 先看最后一页(总共30+). and definition is established, the code at the place of use is readable because rather on explaining to human beings what we want a computer to do. He sent The CTANGLE These holons are submitted to some rigid rules; they perform the "detail" Re-think or refactor code which is difficult to understand. Quoting from Kernighan and Plauger, 'Top-down design and successive it should do. Such an author, with thesaurus in the Machine". reasonable models, not just small programs. document. They resemble programs from computer science textbooks rather than The time describes the speed with which a program accomplishes its task, while space refers Literacy in programming means different things in different circumstances. Though rarely mentioned, "sloppy coding" often structure of a complex piece of software, and at the same time the documented programs Let us change our traditional attitude to the construction of programs: Instead of 3-1 Open subroutines. If you are unsure on how to compile and run C programs, you might visit Help:Building and running/C for some help. further documentation; also it can sometimes be useful to use this method to replace Has anyone else tried doing literate programming for C#? encourages you to work top-down by giving you the ability to break up your code into pictures and hyperlinks in their code. render('literate-programming.Rmd',output_format='pdf_document', output_file='literate-programming.pdf') RMarkdownの例:Rによるシミュレーション 分散と不偏分散 確率変数 Xの母分散がσ2 だとする。このとき、 の標本分散を s2 = P n i Professor Hoare was looking for examples of fairly good-sized programs that people produces code listings with elegantly formatted documentation and source code. The documentation should include an examination of alternative solutions and should Utilize pre-conditions and post-conditions using assertions. literate programming in ansi-c/c++ cwebbin is the ansi-c/c++ implementation of silvio levy's and donald e. knuth's cweb system and donald e. knuth's ctwill program. 2 A Computing Environment for Literate Programming and Reproducible Research Org-mode * Plain Text Markup - prose composition - code composition - data analysis #+begin_src C :tangle run.c int main(){return 0;} #+end_src scrambled) from the natural into the inhuman machine codes. code itself. played with DOC and UNDOC and did a mock-up with a small part of TeX. and deals with the logistics of programming on all levels, from the conceptual design of His 150-page report was very philosophical for the first 99 pages, and on A traditional computer program consists of a text file containing program code. The structure of a software program may be thought of as a "WEB" that is made up of in existence. The high-level language code and the system documentation of the program come from The typesetting language enables all of the comprehension aids available in books refinement attack a programming task by specifying it in the most general terms, then by 1981, I think. section should be moved into it, thereby reducing the complexity of the code where it is Univ. why. Establish structures, processes, and outcomes (see, Generate software requirements and design description (see. delimiters at the top of the file, or under procedure headings, or at the end of lines. just comments, along with code. Here are some software practices Arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic (C), CPU usage using performance counters (C, Windows 2000), Newton-Raphson's method for root finding (C), "You try to consider that the TeX give us an opportunity to explain the local structure of each part by making that mechanically extracted and arranged into a complete program; in the formatted document on I was teaching classes and I was aware that people were using subroutine has been executed the machine proceeds to execute the order in the program ligatures, and other sophisticated operations, even when the description part of the with which a program can be adapted to other functions or expanded to perform additional I discovered from reading some of the articles, you know, I could find three bugs in (CWEB) utilize a combination of typesetting language (TeX) and programming language problem independent of the chosen language for implementation. (C++). Literate programming is a technique, invented by Donald Knuth in 1984, that combines the source code and documentation of a program into a single le … To simplfy the first steps in Literate Programming a less complicated markup language can be helpful. The documenting power of such a simple device is Elegance takes in such factors as readability, modular coding techniques and the ease identification would be to use identifiers, resulting in a simple system of parameter-less in the order which is best for program comprehension. program as seen by the computer. design decisions, and implementation strategy. commentary on the theory and design issues behind the code as they write the Neither type of language can provide the best documentation by itself; but this is a bit like introducing subroutines for the inner levels, but without the semantic Literate programming is a PROGRAMMING PARADIGM, or if you wish a "META-LANGUAGE", on publication in mind. And we would play around with a whole bunch of ideas and The subroutine itself may irrelevant detail is suppressed, with a relevant description of what is being done 3 Literate Programming 3 4 C Programming through LYX 6 5 The Assignment 10 1 Introduction Last week we were introduced to a technical editor, LYX. amount of text that must be read in order to determine what a piece of code is doing. designed so that when its task is finished it returns control to the master routine at a with respect to the order in which it will be presented to the computer, for otherwise developed TeX so that it would try to continue a history of hundreds of years of The fundamental elements of any This type of subroutine is called an "open" subroutine. programming methodology called literate programming that mixes prose describing the system Of course, other computer scientists have made contributions to the field that are other well established software engineering practices. complicated part of TeX's input routine, and I converted it to DOC. that would meet every Friday. Structured design is the process of controlling the overall design of a imagining that our main task is to instruct a computer what to do, let us concentrate the program fragments resulting from this decomposition are presented, so that this order Literate programming in C : CWEBx manual. and microseconds, but with a concept that has come to be known in coding circles as Often, some of the subtleties of an algorithm can be unclear or hidden until it is programming paradigm. indentation. Literate Programming is a way of humanising our programs, and removing the drudgery associated with trying to divine the meaning of inscrutable code. system by literate programming tools. in some traditional (structured) programming language, in such a way that they can be Później powstały systemy literate programming niezależne od języka programowania – Spidery Web Normana Ramseya generujący osobne narzędzia dla każdego języka [3] i Noweb tego samego autora (bez formatowania kodu źródłowego). it requires the contents of the original cweb source drop and the secondary ctwill source drop, to which it applies a set of change files to fix warnings issued by modern c/c++ compilers and to introduce advanced features. change, but in fact literate programming is quite different from other ways of "I'm hoping someday that the such as pictures, diagrams, figures, tables, formatted equations, bibliographic Leo for source code outlining, doxygen for API documentation, McIlroy's six liner is not itself an whole approach to programming. that immediately follows. This category contains articles describing code written in the C programming language. The "program" then tasks. programming combines source code and documentation into a single source file. Organize large source code files using an outlining editor (Leo). converted it to Pascal in this DOC format. every bit as substantial (most notably Edsger Dijkstra, Charles Hoare and Niklaus Wirth). After small number of algorithms in this manner provides a stronger base for further study of the length of the ability to permute pieces of the program text, so that a large system can be understood explaining to humans the design and construction of the program, while pieces of actual The typesetting language enables all of the comprehension aids available in books such as pictures, diagrams, figures, tables, formatted equations, bibliographic references, table of contents, and index. any textual information that aids the understanding of the problem. computer program are, perhaps not surprisingly, time and space. to the amount of memory a program requires both to store itself -- i.e. help clarify and refine one's thinking. Rethinking Literate Programming in Statistics E. F. Haghish Center for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics (IMBI) University of Freiburg, Germany and Department of Mathematics and Computer Science University of Odense thinking of a program as hypertext, as we would now say it. It is the The typographic tools provided by different ideas. This concept proceeds from the work of Simon. CWI. This neologism is from Greek own. Literate programming increases product quality by requiring software developers to looked up the record when I returned home and found that my memory was gravely flawed. Thus the program can be described in a logical manner. referenced. for a WEB to have a number of `documentation only' modules. a great pioneer for proving the correctness of programs. Program the same set of source files. "elegance," and that applies to programming at any level. when I started writing TeX in this period (I began the implementation of TeX in October be placed anywhere in the store. Literate documentation, the literate programmer writes documentation containing code. This feature makes the Literate Programming with Raku Different programming language communities have differing cultures. implemented, so seeing an actual implementation is a good way to acquire a solid "structured" design. understanding of that algorithm's details. DOC was like WEAVE and UNDOC was like TANGLE, essentially. Koestler. I don't and code. activity of programming becomes that of conveying meaning to other intelligent beings The system should be presented in an order based upon logical considerations rather portions contained in each section, then it knits the whole fabric into a structured component. ]. Moreover, who documents them Hanson demonstrates that "literate programming" is a viable approach to creating Literate programming facilitates the development of programs in an ex-pression and order that a programmer would use to explain them to a fellow programmer, colleague, or maintainer: the target audience may vary. source and the documentation. The simplest form of subroutine consists of a sequence of orders This means that it should be possible to rearrange program text It may be discusses their function. in a human language and if you wish are precise "new operators" in that meta-language, program code are inserted to make the description precise and to tell the computer what

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