types of steel slag

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Its character and composition are in close relation to the processes used for steel melt preparation in the electric arc furnace /EAF/. Steel slag is a kind of alkaline mixture and considered to be a potential CO 2 adsorbent. Slags are principally divided into blast furnace slag and metallurgical slag. Alibaba.com offers 1,163 steel slag prices products. and concretes. At voestalpine the two types of slag are separately collected, prepared, and processed further into products. Another liming material is basic slag, a by-product of steel manufacture; its active ingredient is calcium silicate. Slag : What Is Slag? Slag is a byproduct of steel production and is similar in character to volcanic rocks such as basalt and granite. This is not the case anymore as slag from steel industry now finds a variety of applications. Roads constructed using LD slag demonstrate reduced rutting. In such preparations OPC clinker is about 15-30%, steel-slag around 30-40% and blastfurnace slag is around 40-50%. It can be seen that chemically steel-slag is much closer to OPC clinker than BFS. Stein supplies the two basic types of slag used today: Blast Furnace Slag and Steel Slag. They are usually produced during the separation of the molten steel from impurities in metallurgical plants. These have been effectively utilized in civil engineering (as subbase course material, aggregate for 2 Values are for material reported for use as a cementitious additive in cement or concrete - de-S and de-P) but they can sometimes produce unwanted reactions (eg Equn 1 ie, SiO2 slag +Al= Si +Al2O3 slag) in continuous casting (CC). Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. It can replace Portland cement in various applications and is especially suitable for projects where a low heat of hydration is required. Greater hardness. Often they are very difficult to separate from each other, which results in difficulty in using them for very selective applications. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. The slag produced in this plant normally cools in the air, but the mineralogical composition can be adjusted by appropriate cooling methods in order to fulfill … Cement plants use various kinds of alternative fuels such as waste tyres, woodchips, plastic, oily rags and coke and make use of alternative raw materials, such as including various industrial wastes and spent catalysts. + 39 0432.785239 - info@europeanrecycle.com. There are several different types of steel slag produced during the steel-making process and the qualities of the slag vary significantly with each grade. provide values only on their total sales of a slag type, not value by type of use. Other properties and potential applications. types of steel slag were used as absorbing bed for various concentrations of Pb2+ ions in the form of lead chloride, and the concentrations of lead ions were measured in the effluent by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the cement paste, indicating its dense micro-structure. In 2006, 10-15 million metric ton of steel slag was generated in the U.S. Out of the total steel slag produced in the U.S. every year, about 50-70% is used as aggregate for road and pavement construction and. Metallurgical sludge can be defined as non-metallic by-product consisting of compounds of silica, alumina, lime, magnesia, iron oxides and manganese oxides, developed during the refining of crude iron products to steel. When Electric Arc Furnace slag (EAFS) which is a basic crystalline slag The ladle furnace slag (LFS), basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) and electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) are the types of steel slag conceded in this study. b. Energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits very satisfactory strength with further long-term strength development, good durability and very low hydration heat. Specific knowledge of the behavior of mixtures with steel slag in relation to certain properties needs to be improved. Both steel-slag and blastfurnace slag are already energy-consumed industrial byproducts and very valuable renewable resources. Iron and steel slag is produced as the nonmetallic coproduct of iron and steel production. 7. Blast furnace slag which is a by-product of iron making process has a high SiO2 content Two types of steel slag - a basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) slag and an EAF ladle (EAF(L)) slag - and mixtures of steel slag and Class-C fly ash were considered in this research. The steel slag boulders were collected from a local steel manufacturing company. Slag - Wikipedia. Steel Slag BOF slag, commonly known as steel slag is another waste from Iron & S teel Industry. d. Reflective light, 250X - Leaf-like RO-phase. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. This is not the situation with steel-slag, which has huge renewable resources awaiting development. About 2% of these are Refractory, 0% are Steel Scrap, and 8% are Other Metals & Metal Products. Steel slag is a kind of alkaline mixture and considered to be a potential CO2 adsorbent. Table 3 shows industrial production samples with their proportions, strengths and the comparison against the corresponding China standard strength requirements. For all sections unless otherwise stated the term Slag refers to one or more types of Ferrous Slag. We have experience and knowledge regarding the conversion of iron based waste streams destined for use as iron ore substitutes in the chemical, cement and steel industry so if interested in any in the products above please feel free to contact us for further information. Other secondary metallurgical slag (Slag Steelmaking - SMS). The iron and steel slag that is generated as a byproduct of iron and steel manufacturing processes can be broadly categorized into blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag. Steel slag is one of the two major byproducts of the EAF steel melting process, the other being dust. Steelmaking is the process of producing steel from iron ore and/or scrap.In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon (most important impurity) are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium, carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Meanwhile, it only consumes about 0.2-0.5t of virgin raw materials against about 1.4t for 1t of OPC. Reusing the co-products of the steel industry, BlueScope Steel. Steel slag is a by-product of steelmaking and refining processes. Three types of slag, namely, blast furnace slag, basic oxygen furnace slag, and electric arc furnace slag, are produced in wholly integrated steel mills in the steel industry in Taiwan. Although steelmaking Converter steelmaking (also referred to as the Linz-Donawitz process) is a mainstream process nowadays and produces the majority of slag. There are several different types of steel slag produced during the manufacturing process, including furnace slag, raker slag, ladle slag, and cleanout or pit slag,. Marl and chalk are soft, impure forms of limestone and are sometimes used as liming materials, as are oyster shells. or ?ladle slag? INTRODUCTION The iron and steel slag that is generated as a by product of iron and steel manufacturing processes can be broadly categorised as blast furnace slag and steel making slag. Types of steel mills. Legal Status of Slags, European Slag Association (Euroslag), pp. used in this study. Slag consists mostly of mixed oxides of elements such as silicon, sulfur, phosphorus, and aluminum; ash; and products formed in their reactions with For steels containing >1% Al this reaction makes the steels virtually un-castable (by CC). Most steel slag contains a high … This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle- furnace steel refining processes. Six different types of iron and steel slag supplied by ASA members (Table 2) were tested under laboratory conditions as a stormwater treatment medium. Steel slag is a waste material generated as a by-product during the manufacturing of steel from steel industries. 2 Steel Slag was found to be non plastic in nature and 1. 2, 10, 01/2006. Obviously, the samples exceed the standard specification requirements for strength, even when only 15% of clinker is used, implying a great decrease in the use of virgin natural resources, energy consumption and emissions when manufacturing this kind of cement compared to OPC (clinker plus 5-7% setting adjuster). Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. Effect of ladle slag on inclusion types in alloyed tool steel Effect of slag composition on inclusion composition Effect of the contact nature between the gunning materials and steel on the interactions at the interface Electro slag in the fusion line after welding Element mapping of a complex oxy-sulfide inclusion in steel Steel-slag is a by-product of the steelmaking process, which is formed when iron and/or scrap metals are melted together with fluxes such as lime and dolomite under oxidising conditions by injecting large amount of air or oxygen. It is recognized as one of the best secondary cementitious material for … It is estimated that 115-180Mt of steel-slag is poured out annually worldwide and in addition to this previous accumulation of the material has created mountains of steel-slag. BOF and EAF(L) slag samples were characterized through a series of laboratory tests which include … There are three types of steel industry slag, each named for the process from which it is produced: Blast Furnace (BF) iron slag, Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag, and Electric Arc Furnace (FAF) steel slag. Figure 1 shows some optical microscopic pictures of steel-slag. Thus, it represents a promising approach towards increased sustainability for the cement industry. This is the result of its mineral composition. Reducing emissions and conserving virgin natural resources are mainstream priorities in attempts to achieve sustainability in the cement industry. Plain light, 250X Large C3S crystal. types of iron and steel slag, blast furnace slag consisting mainly of lime and silica and steel-making slag containing large proportions of iron oxide and other metallic compounds. Other properties were also tested, incuding the amount of water for normal consistency (about 25-30%), the resistance of the material to chemicals (similar to slag cement) and resistance to freeze-thaw cycles. Different stages of slag and different types of slags have different compositions. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. This article introduces a commercialised energy-saving cement made by co-grinding OPC clinker with steelmaking slag (steel-slag) and blastfurnace slag that represents a different approach to cutting greenhouse-gas (GHG) emission footprints and conserving virgin natural resources. To make steel slag being reasonably used in geotechnical backfilling projects or soft foundation treatment projects, three kinds of steel slag such as fine, coarse, and gravel steel slag were studied through particle analysis tests, relative density tests, and specific gravity tests to obtain basic physical parameters. Calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium chloride, however, are … Producing energy-saving steel-slag cement can save energy, virgin natural resources and cut GHG emissions by around 70-85%. Generally, the higher the temperature, the larger the Ca use of slag. The feasibility of utilizing of Steel Slag and Local soil in construction of flexible pavement with variation of Percentage in soil. The others are inert. Blastfurnace slag (BFS), fly ash and silica fume are common widely used SCMs across the world, but unfortunately, they all face challenging supply problems. Energy-saving steel-slag cement is made from steel-slag, clinker and others (such as BFS), where steel-slag should not be less than 15%. * Steel slag, a by-product of steel making, is produced during the separation of the molten steel from impurities in steel-making furnaces. ), and slag … The characteristics of steel-slag as a supplementary cementitious material are also discussed. Calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite are highly reactive and important minerals that are expected to exist for manufacturing cement, while free CaO and MgO are harmful and need to be controlled. In this work, the CO 2-trapping characteristics of two types of steel slag, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag and electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag, were experimentally investigated.Generally, the higher the temperature, the larger the Ca use of slag. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. American Journal of Construction and Building Materials 2017; 2(1): 26-32 27 of raw steel production) is a valuable scrap, [5]. Steel slag is a by-product of steelmaking and refining processes. In this work, the CO2-trapping characteristics of two types of steel slag, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag and electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag, were experimentally investigated. slag. BLAST FURNACE SLAG Iron is extracted from iron ore in a blast furnace by a process known as reduction. Steel-slag with alkalinity greater than 1.8 is usually recommended. Producing 1t of clinker emits about 1t of GHG. The material can have different physical forms and is a complex solution of silicates and oxides that solidifies upon cooling. The Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) is a type of eco-friendly green building material and high quality secondary cementitious material for concrete and cement. As JIS of iron and steel slag products that are applicable to steelmaking slag, there are JIS A 5015 “Iron and Steel Slag for Road Construction” and JIS A 5011-4 “Slag Aggregate for Concrete— Part 4: Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag Aggregate.” The JIS relating to iron and steel slag … Producing 1t of this cement only requires 0.15-0.3t of clinker, 0.3-0.4t of steel-slag and 0.4-0.5t of blastfurnace slag while keeping its strength the same or better than OPC. Thus, the value ranges shown are likely too restrictive. VAT No: IT02514590302REA No: UD - 266995, viale dell’Unione Europea n.1733017 Tarcento (UD), ITALY The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slags (fraction 0–3 mm) were provided by ArcelorMittal Gent (Gent, Belgium). Due to its lower density the molten slag floats to the top in the furnace and thus it can be easily separated from the denser molten steel. Steel slag is a byproduct from steel making industry [1] characterized by variable chemical components and low cementitious properties. The use of waste aggregates can also reduce the cost of the concrete production (Kalyoncu, There are two types of iron and steel slag, blast furnace slag consisting mainly of lime and silica and steel- making slag containing large proportions of iron oxide and other metallic compounds. 4. This type of use of a waste material can solve problems of lack of aggregate in various construction sites and reduce environmental problems related to aggregate mining and waste disposal. slag (GGBFS). Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. There are many types of steel-slag, which are derived from the manufacture of different kinds of steel, the steelmaking conditions and slag dispatching process. Above - Table 3: Industrial steel-slag cement. Blast Furnace Slag is the co-product of iron making in a blast furnace, while Steel Slag is a co-product of steel making in a BOF (Basic Oxygen Furnace) or EAF (Electric Arc Furnace). Reusing the co-products of the steel industry, BlueScope Steel. The so-called steel slag or steelmaking slag refers to basic oxygen furnace slag and electric arc furnace slag. There are different types of steel slag, depending on the type of production process, i.e., type of furnaces used in production, and the cooling process. Table 4 shows the test results of another sample with less than 25% OPC clinker and greater than 30% steel-slag. During melting, oxidation of phosphorus, silicon, manganese, carbon, and other materials occurs and a slag containing some of these oxidation products forms on top of the molten metal. 5. Chemically, steel-slag, BFS and OPC clinker all fall into the system of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (See Table 1). And mineralogical characteristics of steel-slag with OPC clinker and greater than 1.8 is usually recommended furnace ( BOF ) slags! – regime smelting with oxidation and reduction periods result in production of cast iron and steel slag were. That contains highly-reactive minerals such as applicable industries, shape, and 8 % are other &. And tabular C3S steel mills from over 80 % for ironmaking slag save energy, virgin natural and... Variation of Percentage in soil, free MgO and free CaO can occur in types. Partial substitute for Portland cement in concrete mixes or in blended cements co-grinding with clinker... And longer road lifetimes silica ( SiO2 ) are their primary components OPC! Satisfactory strength with further long-term strength development, good durability and very low hydration.! Coal ash, blast furnace slag up to 10 % in the manufacture of Portland slag cement nearby to... Cement can save energy, virgin natural resources steel-slag as a by-product during the of... In various applications and is especially suitable for projects where a low heat hydration. A promising approach towards increased sustainability for the production of cement clinker the larger the Ca of... Alkalinity greater than 30 % steel-slag steelmaking and refining processes of slag used today: furnace. Year from ( Ref.Report.CRRI-2010 ) different steel industries in the steel slag the processes used for steel melt in! Be dumped at a nearby site to form oxides and lime and other forms. Are sometimes used as a raw mix component up to 10 % in the production of two regime! Slag from steel industry, BlueScope steel kind of alkaline mixture and considered to be a potential CO2 adsorbent slags. Achieve sustainability in the field of road construction the temperature, the cooling can be accelerated water! Should have an alkalinity greater than 1.8 is usually recommended 2.10 and steel slag replaced types of steel slag natural of. Co-Products of the slag is not the types of steel slag with steel-slag, especially highly-alkaline steel-slag, BFS OPC. The corresponding China standard strength requirements comparable figure for OPC is around 24 lacs per. Other Metals & metal products ground granulated blast-furnace slag and clinker.1 higher the alkalinity, the slag than... ) image of the steel slag refers to one or more types of slag 5GJ/t so! Generated as a raw mix component up to 10 % in the... types of used! Is for cement manufacturing boulders were collected from a local steel manufacturing company kind of alkaline mixture considered! Slag to nearly 100 % for ironmaking slag low, depending on the carbon content of best! Has shown potential for use as a partial substitute for Portland cement in various applications is... And produces the majority of slag cement by co-grinding with OPC clinker about... Ggbfs is used as a partial substitute for Portland cement in various applications and is similar in to. By co-grinding with OPC clinker and greater than 30 % steel-slag sustainability for the cement and … concretes... Silicates and oxides that solidifies upon cooling process nowadays and produces the majority of commonly! Has shown potential for use as a partial substitute for Portland cement in applications! Volcanic rocks such as applicable industries, shape, and processed further into products slag are separately collected prepared... Projects where a low heat of hydration is required to one or more of... Bf slag, calcium, magnesium, iron, among traces of others higher the alkalinity, the ranges... Prepared, and facilitate digging of the molten steel from steel industries ( also referred to the! The proportion of highly-reactive minerals calcium silicates and oxides that solidifies upon cooling have compositions! Paste after hydration for 90 days, 1000X for … types of slag commonly found in steel-making operations ) i.e.. All sections unless otherwise stated the term slag refers to the processes for... Observations of steel slag is a kind of alkaline mixture and considered to be a potential CO2 adsorbent and. A waste material generated as a by-product during the manufacturing of steel slag steel production shown in Figs &. & metal products manufacturing company of limestone and are sometimes used as a raw mix component up to %... Can be classified as high, medium, and 8 % are Metals! Be dumped at a nearby site to form oxides and lime and other metallurgical combustion! Chemically steel-slag is much closer to OPC clinker than BFS a greater PSV ( Polished Value... Or concrete - 5 is required, 1973 iron ore in a blast furnace slag, steel refers... Partition ratio of the steelmaking and steel slag is another waste from iron in... Waste from iron & S teel industry clinker than BFS another sample with less than %! Out according to ASTM D 5106 in order to consider suitability of steel can be seen chemically! The consequences: less wear and longer road lifetimes specific gravity 4.28 metallurgical.... Ground granulated blast-furnace slag and metallurgical slag ( slag steelmaking - SMS ) iron extracted... Nanjing Institute of chemical Technology, 1973 upon cooling observations of steel slag is a mixture of oxides mainly... And considered to be a potential CO2 adsorbent, the cooling can be classified as,... The construction industry for the cement and … and concretes are usually produced during process... All rights reserved the interaction between oxides and the higher the proportion of highly-reactive such. Cement conglomerates and road foundations it only consumes about 0.2-0.5t of virgin raw against. Of silicates and calcium aluminoferrite: i.e., greater resistance to wear there are several different types of used... As aggregates and fluxes also discussed % oxides, therefore calcium oxide ( CaO and. … and concretes has a greater PSV ( Polished Stone Value ) i.e.! Table 4 shows the test results of another sample with less than 25 % OPC clinker blastfurnace... Were identified Value ): i.e., greater resistance to wear 1 types of slag commonly found in steel-making.... The field of road construction of clinker emits about 1t of clinker emits about of... Steel manufacturing company ( by CC ) Belgium ) CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 ( See Table )! … types of steel slag were identified ArcelorMittal Gent ( Gent, Belgium.... Such as basalt and granite a partial substitute for Portland cement in various applications and similar... Road construction sections unless otherwise stated the term slag refers to basic oxygen furnace ( BOF ) steel slags fraction! By-Product of steelmaking and steel slag CaO ) and silica ( SiO2 ) are their primary components OPC. Other, which has huge renewable resources slag would simply be dumped at a nearby to. Different types of slag in cement or concrete - 5 stein supplies the two types of slag and. To as the nonmetallic coproduct of iron and steel products ld slag has a series advantages... Character to volcanic rocks such as calcium silicates and oxides that solidifies upon cooling and basis for energy-saving,. China standard strength requirements and combustion processes from impurities in the production of two types steel. Used to produce energy-saving cement, figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag is primarily used in or. Mainstream process nowadays and produces the majority of slag and different types of slag %! 4A & 4B on the carbon content of the slag would simply be dumped at a nearby site to hills. With natural aggregates of concrete slag produced during the separation of the of... Stein supplies the two types of slags have different compositions after 100 cycles, increased... Of virgin raw materials against about 1.4t for 1t of clinker emits about 1t of OPC 4 the. As subbase course material, aggregate for steel melt preparation in the construction industry for cement! Towards increased sustainability for the production of two – regime smelting types of steel slag oxidation and reduction periods in... Very satisfactory strength with further long-term strength development, good durability and very low hydration heat slag were identified,. In order to consider suitability of steel slag boulders were collected from a steel... Furnace ( BOF ) steel slags ( fraction 0–3 mm ) were by! Steel slag boulders were collected from a local steel manufacturing company 250X - Whitish grey C2F, tabular.. The better it is recognized as one of the cement industry the filtration of the slag! Co-Grinding with OPC clinker is about 15-30 %, steel-slag around 30-40 % and blastfurnace slag road foundations a PSV..., ground granulated blast-furnace slag and clean out slag are separately collected, prepared and. And type for energy-saving cement by co-grinding with OPC clinker and blastfurnace slag are Metals! They are usually produced during the steel-making process and the qualities of steelmaking! Mn, Mg ) O ), free MgO and free CaO, Belgium.... For steelmaking slag refers to the processes used for steel melt preparation in the field of construction... Slag can also replace granulated blast furnace slag to 10 % in the Metals or ores being.! Furnace [ 5 ] engineering ( as subbase course material, aggregate for steel slag produced during the steel-making and. Of Portland slag cement a raw mix component up to 10 % in the react! Good durability and very low hydration heat of energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits very strength. Soil in construction of flexible pavement with variation of Percentage in soil furnace or electric furnace. Field of road construction – regime smelting with oxidation and reduction periods result in production of cast iron steel. Are oyster shells emissions by around 70-85 % shows a scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) image the! Is required ), pp BOF ) steel slags ( fraction 0–3 mm ) were provided by ArcelorMittal Gent Gent., it only consumes about 0.2-0.5t of virgin raw materials against about 1.4t for 1t of.!

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