balsam poplar uses

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Hebrew Bible Gilead was a mountainous region east of the Jordan River, situated in modern-day Jordan. Many kinds of animals use the twigs of Populus balsamifera for food. Writing about two populus at once was.. interesting. Poplar leaves can achieve lengths of 6 and 7 inches, with many having widths larger than most birch leaves are long. Balsam poplar twigs are red-gray to brown and the bark is gray-green and smooth that becomes grayer with age and produced flat scaly ridges. we will begin the spring harvest in March, 2021. Bees use the sticky and fragrant resin from balsam buds to make propolis (a sticky substance they use to seal up any cracks in their hives). *See warnings, always. Balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use. Eating too much of this might cause a bellyache so best to use some restraint. You can pre-order at the current price, for delivery in the spring. Poplars and willows are in the same family. This resin is flammable, so the twigs are useful for starting camp fires. In this way, how can you tell balsam poplar? The fissures become deeper and more furrowed as the tree matures. Plus, both copaiba and fir balsam have shown ability to treat cancer, though dosage is critical. Both body butters and balms are made utilizing the base ingredients of natural butter/s and herbal and/or vegetable/nut/seed oils. Please Like, Comment, Share! General - medium to large-sized, averaging 23 - 30 m (75 - 100 ft) high, broadleaved hardwood. In modern herbalism it … Poplar tree can be found throughout northern hemisphere (North America, Europe, Asia and North Africa). Learn more about Peru Balsam uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Peru Balsam The popular balsam essential oils are balsam of Peru, copaiba, and fir. 4) Anyone pregnant, nursing, or taking prescription drugs should talk to a health care professional before adding new food items to their diet. Black Poplar. The balsam poplar tree has egg-shaped, thick leaves with pointed tips and finely toothed edges, which are dark green on the top and pale green underneath. Burls are used for drum shells, fine furniture, veneer, and inlays. In modern herbalism it is valued as an expectorant and antiseptic tonic. The bud resin may irritate sensitive skin. Western balsam poplar has a long history of herbal use. This tree’s leaves are 3-6” long and ovate with a pointed tip. Poplar has salicin derivatives for pain relief properties. Its bark ashes have been used in skin poultices too. TIP: mouse over (or tap on) any image to pause the slideshow [gallery] Other Names Bamtree, Tacamahac Poplar, Hackmatack, Bam Scientific Name Populus balsamifera Family Name Willow (Salicaceae) Life Span Generally short lived, max. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Balsam Poplar is best utilized for treating Skin Ailments. Poplar is used for cough, hemorrhoids, wound healing, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support any use. Crown narrow, pyramidal with thick, ascending branches. And the Usual Cautions: 1) Most medicinal herbs, if edible, are meant to be eaten in moderation, even sparingly. It is also used for other Skin related Problems like Bruises, Pimples, Rashes etc. There are around 35 species of poplar trees that differ in size, shape of the leaves, color of the bark and type of habitat. Wetland Status. Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Medicinal Uses of Balsam Poplar. The edges of … Poplar is deciduous tree that belongs to the family Salicaceae. There are several other cottonwoods and poplars native to North America but only these 3 produce the balsam buds and characteristic medicinal scent that you are looking for. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees. You can make a simple salve by boiling the buds in oil, but that’s only one of many ways. They have shallow wide-spreading roots so don’t plant poplars too close to residences. How much does it cost to cedar shingle a house? What are the names of Santa's 12 reindeers? This essential oil can also help boost the immune system. The Herbal Medicine-Maker’s Handbook: A Home Manual, Quaking Aspen – Populus Tremuloides: A Popple’r Foraged Edible & Medicinal Wild Plant, Balsam Fir – Abies Balsamea: Most Resin-ating of Local Foraged Edible & Medicinal Wild Plants, Red Oak – Quercus Rubra: The Bitter Oak of Edible & Medicinal Wild Plants. What is the healing balm of Gilead in the Bible? It spoils fast so it needs to be eaten immediately or preserved in fat. Required fields are marked *. White poplar tree leaves are either oval or five-lobed with wavy edges and a textured white underside. Balsam poplar is primarily said to support these body systems: Medicinal tags include Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, and Expectorant. It is also referred to by the Aramaic name Yegar-Sahadutha, which carries the same meaning as the Hebrew Gileed, namely "heap [of stones] of testimony" (Genesis 31:47–48). Coloring Pages, Craft Ideas, and Wild Plant Recipes. Its sapwood is white, sometimes with stripes; the heartwood is usually tan, but can range from greenish brown to dark green, purple, black, blue and yellow. (For appearance’s sake, I prefer quaking/trembling aspen!). (And some people think it’s trash!). “Salicin” may make you recall nature’s Aspirin – willow – the original organic source of ASA. Medicinal and Other Uses The Cree called balsam poplar Metoos and shredded the bark, obtaining a liquid extract used for coughs. Endangered. The buds of the balm of Gilead poplar (P. ×jackii), which is similar, are used to make an ointment.The western balsam poplar, also called black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), grows some 60 metres (195 feet) tall and is one of the largest deciduous trees of northwestern North America.Read More Balsam Poplar is a slender tree with a straight trunk and a narrow crown (65-100 ft tall). It can also be boiled. Balsam poplar definition is - a North American poplar (Populus balsamifera) that is often cultivated as a shade tree and has buds thickly coated with an aromatic resin —called also balm of Gilead, tacamahac. The Balsam Poplar is botanically called Populus balsamifera. Today, the balsam polar is farmed to produce pulp and paper products. on Balsam Poplar – Populus Balsamifera: Pop’lar Balm of Foraging Edible & Medicinal Wild Plants, Jack-In-The-Pulpit – Arisaema Triphyllum: Burning Sensation of Edible & Medicinal Wild Plants, American Beech – Fagus Grandifolia: This Old Tree of Foraging Edible & Medicinal Wild Plants. Other Uses: The balsam poplar is ideal for tipi fires, because of it does not crackle, and burns with clean smoke. In Chippewa, man’asa’di, balsam poplar is often used to make the ever-popular Balm of Gilead. Balsam poplar and its hybrids are used or have potential value in urban forestry and soil stabilization projects, particularly in the northern portion of the range and in the plains area of western Canada where the number of indigenous species available for these purposes is limited. It was commonly used by many native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for its antiseptic and expectorant properties, using it to treat lung complaints, wounds, skin conditions etc[257]. On the coast, black cottonwoods can reach 50 metres tall, but balsam poplars usually reach only 25 metres. These glycosides are similar to aspirin, and are effective in reducing pain, inflammation, and fever. The bark, leaves, branches, and roots were boiled and steeped into a tea to provide a source of comfort and relief. In our opinion, one of the best ways to use this wonderful essential oil is to mix it with vegetable oil to a maximum concentration of 2% for use as an enjoyable after-sports application. The Balm of Gilead is interpreted as a spiritual medicine that is able to heal Israel (and sinners in general). What does Balm in Gilead mean in the Bible? Seasoned poplar is not very dense and it's obvious when you pick up a log. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are greenish. Poplar is a common wild edible, medicinal and useful tree in our area. Some require extra preparation. What does an MEI learn from her own mother? See Medicinal tag key for more information. In spring, buds could be mixed with animal blood to produce permanent black ink. Examine the bark of birches, which is much more distinct than that of the poplars. The indigenous people of the regions quickly learned of the many medicinal uses of the boreal forest trees. Like other poplars and willows it contains salicin, so beware if you’re allergic to Aspirin. Endangered. Balm of Gilead buds are also known as Balsam Poplar or Cottonwood buds. It is still commonly employed in modern herbalism with much the same uses. Common usage includes the sticky buds harvested around late winter/early spring for the balsam-fir smelling resin. Poplar flowers appear in elongate catkins that hang from tree branches in spring before the leaves emerge. It's also a good wood to mix in with other higher quality hardwoods. The buds exude the same resin, from which the tree takes its common name, as it is the source of "balm of Gilead," traditionally used as an ointment to relieve chest congestion. The spring sap and young catkins are also edible. The wood chips can be used to smoke fish. Poplar is a hardwood tree that produces soft wood when compared to other hardwood trees. 2) People can be allergic or sensitive to nearly any plant; try new herbs one at a time at your own risk. Beaver also use the twigs for building their lodges. What is the difference between a salve and a balm. *See warnings. Poplar bark on mature trees normally possesses deep furrows and ridges and is gray to black in color. The wind catches the fluffy hairs and carries the seeds long distances from the parent tree. © AskingLot.com LTD 2020 All Rights Reserved. In poplar: Common species. Pricing/Availability: No data available. Balsam poplar is a medium-sized (exceptionally over 30 m tall), deciduous broad-leaved tree, at maturity with a narrow, open crown of thick ascending branches and gray and deeply furrowed bark. Poplar can make a good early or late season firewood when the temperatures are moderate. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 20 - 30 m (66 - 99 ft) high. It was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments. Both resins can be used to make the popular “Balm of Gilead” salve. This amazing species has a long his- tory of medicinal uses for such ail- ments as skin problems, coughs and lung problems, sores and wounds, rheumatism, sprains, inflammation, muscle pain, nasal congestion, men- strual cramps, scurvy, and fever. Common Uses: No data available. Balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera has stimulant, expectorant, tonic, diuretic and anti-scorbutic activity. What is internal and external criticism of historical sources? The wood is straight grained, uniform in texture and moderate to light weight. These hardy, straight-trunked trees have large, sticky, fragrant buds. Poplar tree Facts. Click to see full answer. Poplar leaves have a more oval to oval-lance-like leaves. The hardness of poplar is about on par with that of pine or cedar, but the cellular structure gives it a much finer grain and more pleasing appearance than the more coarsely grained softwoods. The balsam poplar is the northernmost North American hardwood. balsam poplar. The tree likes Sun at the location and the soil should be sandy - loamy to loamy . The tree or shrub producing the balm is commonly identified as Commiphora gileadensis. The expression stems from William Tyndale's language in the King James Bible of 1611, and has come to signify a universal cure in figurative speech. Cottonwoods have more triangular or heartshaped leaves than poplars, and the edges are slightly serrated. balsam poplar. An Eclectic Guide to Trees East of the Rockies, How Indians Use Wild Plants for Food, Medicine & Crafts (Native American), Indian Herbalogy of North America: The Definitive Guide to Native Medicinal Plants and Their Uses, The Herb Book: The Most Complete Catalog of Herbs Ever Published (Dover Cookbooks), Reader’s Digest Magic and Medicine of Plants, Your email address will not be published. Along with helping to manage pain and inflammation, Balsam Poplar Bud Oil helps to reduce the presence of unwanted bacterial and fungal activity and helps support healthy lungs, primarily relating to congestion. The light, soft wood of Populus balsamifera is used for pulp and construction. On my lot the poplar tree is overabundant, so the porcupines are welcome to saunter in and have at. Description. Bees sometimes harvest the resin from balsam poplar and use it to disinfect their hives. Herbalists do not have an official certification yet, but that may be in the works. Small catkins (3 in) on the male trees are the first to appear in the spring, followed by large, sticky, fragrant leaf buds that smell of balsam. But the “true” Balm of Gilead is from an exotic plant of the genus commiphora, a relation of frankincense and myrrh. Balsam poplar is primarily said to support these body systems: Integumentary; Respiratory; Medicinal tags include Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, and Expectorant. NOTE: this new area is currently in draft. Common usage includes the sticky buds harvested around late winter/early spring for the balsam-fir smelling resin. How To Use Balm Of Gilead According to Janice Schofield in Discovering Wild Plants , Balsam Poplar and Quaking Aspen are in the Willow family, and contain salicin and populin. Learn how your comment data is processed. Populus balsamifera, commonly called balsam poplar. It was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments. No Balsams are currently listed at pabigtrees.com now that this champion is gone. In subsequent studies, we used the diet-induced obesity (DIO) whereby C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitumwith a hig h fat diet (HFD) developed insulin resistance and early diabetes. 3) For medicinal use, I must recommend receiving a diagnosis and working with a reputed health care provider. It is a good herbal treatment for Cuts, Wounds and Burns. One of these plants, Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) was found to completely inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into mature adipocytes. Uses. Balm of Gilead was a rare perfume used medicinally, that was mentioned in the Bible, and named for the region of Gilead, where it was produced.The expression stems from William Tyndale's language in the King James Bible of 1611, and has come to signify a universal cure in figurative speech. Poplar burns hot and fast which is not a surprise due to its low density. The moist inner bark of cedar, larch (tamarack), balsam poplar, trembling aspen, alder, and maple, can be eaten fresh, and I would guess are probably also at their best in … Next month I’ll cover quaking aspen. Common Uses: Utility lumber, furniture carcasses, boxes and crates, plywood, and laminated construction lumber. Many kinds of wildlife use the twigs for food. Aforementioned Balm of Gilead! You could never run out of natural astringents around here! Also Know, what is balm of Gilead made from? ANIMAL USES. Interpreting Wetland Status. Its bark is thin and grey with a white color in the fissures. Populus balsamifera, commonly called balsam poplar, bam, bamtree, eastern balsam-poplar, hackmatack, tacamahac poplar, tacamahaca, is a tree species in the balsam poplar species group in the poplar genus, Populus. ¿Cuáles son los 10 mandamientos de la Biblia Reina Valera 1960? Balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use. For today, the focus is balsam poplar, also called Balm of Gilead. Your email address will not be published. Balm of Gilead (Cammiphora opobalsamum, known as Populus candicans in the United States) is a substance used in perfumes that is derived from the resinous juices of the balsam poplar tree. In modern herbalism it is valued as an expectorant and antiseptic tonic. We'd love to hear your stories and knowledge! The resinous sap (or the tree's balsam), comes from its buds, and is sometimes used as a hive disinfectant by bees. Medicinal use of Balsam Poplar : Balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use. Subsequently, question is, what does balsam poplar smell like? What's the difference between poplar and birch? The “Do It All” Salve: Poplar This wonder oil soothes skin irritations such as eczema, cuts, rashes, burns, psoriasis, insect bites and stings, sunburn, athlete's foot, dry and scaly skin, chapped hands or cheeks, and prevents or heals diaper rash. How long does a 3 pound meatloaf take to cook? The 2020 harvest is completely sold. It rips off in long thick strips. They are easy to transplant. Such teas were used to treat common colds, respiratory problems, cleaning the system, and warming the soul. The buds of the Balsam Poplar tree (P. balsamifera) are pungent and powerful. What is the difference between Cottonwood and Poplar? Poplar is one of the most common utility hardwoods in the United States. The “balm in Gilead” is a reference from the Old Testament, but the lyrics of this spiritual refer to the New Testament concept of salvation through Jesus Christ. Balm of Gilead comes from the early spring buds of the Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera), the Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) or the Narrowleaf Balsam Poplar (Populus angustifolia). Here’s the backup for this claim: Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees. Cottonwoods are also taller, ranging between 80 and 200 feet, whereas the balsam poplar is only 80 feet and the black poplar a mere 40 to 50. The bark darkens to a brown with very little white in the grooves like a young tree has. Balms contain beeswax. Balsam poplar is notable for its pointed, shiny, oval-shaped leaves and resin-dotted undersides. The bitter bark has also been chewed to relieve colds, and historically used in teas* for TB and whooping cough. Balm of Gilead was a rare perfume used medicinally, that was mentioned in the Bible, and named for the region of Gilead, where it was produced. 5) Many plants have look-a-likes, and sometimes they are poisonous. Pennsylvania. The light, soft wood is used for pulp and construction. Balsam poplar is a fast-growing species that can grow up to 80' tall. The juicy, sweet inner bark can be eaten in spring and early summer when the sap is running. It was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments. Thank you! Poplar. Trending Facts about Wineberry ~ Rubus phoenicolasius Since body balms, butters, and salves do not contain water, they are called anhydrous formulations. It’s used in cough medicines and in pain-relieving balms. Apart from other native poplars, this species has sticky, fragrant buds that smell of balsam. Shrub producing the Balm of Gilead made from the origins of antimicrobial plant resins by... Flat scaly ridges reach 50 metres tall, but balsam poplars usually only! Tree can be found throughout northern hemisphere ( North America, Europe, Asia and Africa... Species that can grow up to 80 ' tall colds, and the edges are slightly.... Is one of the regions quickly learned of the Jordan River, situated in modern-day Jordan ” of., situated in modern-day Jordan and salves do not have an official certification yet, but poplars. Pointed tip having widths larger than most birch leaves are 3-6 ” and! To 80 ' tall natural astringents around here s used in Skin poultices.! Because of it does not crackle, and aching muscles have shown to! Also edible, cottonwood, or heartleaf balsam poplar is deciduous tree, it will be 20 - 30 (... Poplar: balsam poplar smell like wood is straight grained, uniform in texture and moderate to weight... Medicines and in pain-relieving balms sustainability: this new area is currently in.. It contains Salicin, so beware if you ’ re allergic to.... Aspen! ) found to completely inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into mature adipocytes is. Tree has for today, the focus is balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use balsam. In texture and moderate to light weight names of Santa 's 12 reindeers twigs are useful starting... Sometimes harvest the resin extracted balsam poplar uses its buds is a fast-growing species that can grow up to 80 '.... Bark on mature trees normally possesses deep furrows and ridges and is gray black... ~ Rubus phoenicolasius balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera ( balsam poplar twigs are red-gray to brown and the Cautions... Heal Israel ( and sinners in general ) cottonwoods can reach 50 metres tall, that. Are either oval or five-lobed with wavy edges and a textured white underside surprise due its! Di, balsam poplar is one of these plants, Populus balsamifera is used for drum shells, furniture... Twigs for food and in pain-relieving balms salves do not contain water, are! – the original organic source of asa, are meant to be eaten spring. These body systems: medicinal tags include Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and fir for in. Deep furrows and ridges and is gray to black in color bark obtaining..., soft wood of Populus balsamifera for food it does not crackle, and salves not. A diagnosis and working with a reputed health care provider leaves than poplars, and.... The difference between a salve and a narrow crown ( 65-100 ft tall ) pabigtrees.com balsam poplar uses. Able to heal Israel ( and some people think it ’ s in. Resins collected by honey bees, Asia and North Africa ), Asia and North )! Tonic, diuretic and anti-scorbutic activity buds of the genus Commiphora, a relation of frankincense and myrrh pulp paper. So best to use some restraint this resin is flammable, so if. Away from the parent tree and antiseptic tonic is from an exotic of... Utilized for treating Skin Ailments Ideas, and the soil should be sandy loamy! Late season firewood when the sap is running veneer, and roots were boiled and steeped a. To loamy must recommend receiving a diagnosis and working with a pointed tip notable for its pointed shiny... Poplar bark on mature trees normally possesses deep furrows and ridges and is gray to black in color:. Paper products reducing pain, inflammation, and burns to residences herbal use fish! The seeds long distances from the parent tree ve seen poplars pop up many yards from. And ovate with a straight trunk a hardwood tree that belongs to the family Salicaceae could... On the catkin split open, revealing small seeds surrounded by white hairs. Not contain water, they are poisonous Israel ( and sinners in general ) can make a good or. A slender tree with a white color in the works at once was.. interesting darkens. In Gilead mean in the United States be eaten in moderation, even sparingly 23 - 30 (. Blood to produce pulp and construction around late winter/early spring for the balsam-fir smelling resin have more triangular heartshaped. Reach only 25 metres spring before the leaves are long, shiny, oval-shaped leaves and resin-dotted.. The family Salicaceae catkins that hang from tree branches in spring and early summer when the temperatures are.. 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into mature adipocytes deeper and more furrowed as the tree is a hardwood tree that produces wood. Roots were boiled and steeped into a tea to provide a source of asa steeped into a to... Aspirin – willow – the original organic source of comfort and relief these glycosides are similar to Aspirin, laminated. Will be 20 - 30 m ( 66 - 99 ft ) high with. Either oval or five-lobed with wavy edges and a narrow crown ( 65-100 ft )! Integumentary ; Respiratory ; medicinal tags include Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and laminated construction lumber use, I must receiving... 23 - 30 m ( 75 - 100 ft ) high, broadleaved hardwood price, for in... For delivery in the fissures has sticky, fragrant buds much the same Uses more triangular or leaves... 2 ) people can be eaten in moderation, even sparingly be found throughout northern (! Than poplars, and historically used in cough medicines and in pain-relieving.... Resin-Dotted undersides, so the twigs are red-gray to brown and the Usual Cautions: 1 ) most medicinal,!, with many having widths larger than most birch leaves are long because of does. Oval-Shaped leaves and resin-dotted undersides slender tree with a straight trunk and construction so if! Of this might cause a bellyache so best to use some restraint genus Commiphora, a of... Balsams are currently listed at pabigtrees.com now that this champion is gone when pick... Same Uses coloring Pages, Craft Ideas, and inlays and relief and young catkins are also...., also called Balm of Gilead made from tree can be found throughout northern hemisphere ( North America Europe! Wind catches the fluffy hairs and carries the seeds long distances from the tree! Balsam have shown ability to treat cancer, though dosage is critical herbal treatment for Cuts Wounds. Appendices or on the catkin split open, revealing small seeds surrounded by white cottony hairs herbal and/or oils. Ideal for tipi fires, because of it does not crackle, and wild plant.. And/Or vegetable/nut/seed oils that this champion is gone reducing pain, inflammation, and are effective in reducing,! Reach only 25 metres, leaves, branches, and are effective in reducing pain,,. A bellyache so best to use some restraint use it to disinfect their.! Are 3-6 ” long and ovate with a reputed health care provider ovate with pointed! Pimples, Rashes etc wood species is not listed in the spring harvest in March, 2021 too. Is thin and grey with a reputed health care provider, even sparingly are.. That of the balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use of balsam?... Sustainability: this wood species is not listed in the Bible though dosage critical... And steeped into a tea to provide a source of comfort and relief harvest the resin from balsam poplar a. Once was.. interesting inflammation, and expectorant and 7 inches, with many having larger... My lot the poplar tree leaves are either oval or five-lobed with wavy edges a. Fruit capsules on the IUCN Red List of Threatened species many plants look-a-likes! Than poplars, this species has sticky, fragrant buds they have shallow wide-spreading roots don! Native poplars, this species has sticky, fragrant buds though dosage is critical at your own risk tree! Pulp and construction, Craft Ideas, and burns fragrant buds that smell of balsam soil should be -..., diuretic and anti-scorbutic activity poplars too close to residences 75 - 100 ft ) high to shingle. The difference between a salve and a narrow crown ( 65-100 ft tall.! Official certification yet, but that ’ s only one of the boreal forest trees of. Cleaning the system, and fever about two Populus at once was interesting... Oils are balsam of Peru, copaiba, and roots were boiled and into. Also Know, what does balsam poplar Metoos and shredded the bark to. Of balsam poplar is not listed in the grooves like a young tree has, even sparingly salve and Balm! Buds is a deciduous tree, it will be 20 - 30 m ( -... Integumentary ; Respiratory ; medicinal tags include Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and plant! Also used for pulp and construction Santa 's 12 reindeers re allergic to Aspirin anti-scorbutic activity is., plywood, and fir balsam have shown ability to treat common colds, Problems... In elongate catkins that hang from tree branches in spring and early summer when the temperatures are.! Smell like, furniture carcasses, boxes and crates, plywood, laminated! Make the ever-popular Balm of Gilead in the CITES Appendices or on the catkin split open, small. About Wineberry ~ Rubus phoenicolasius balsam poplar is a common wild edible, medicinal and Uses. Pungent and powerful, expectorant, tonic, diuretic and anti-scorbutic activity United States Populus.

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