moor meaning black

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The original name on very old maps every military map was called North Mexi, Central Mexi etc. The name was later also applied to Arabs. )”, Source: Dictionary of races or peoples by United States. M0r, pi. Other cognates of ‘blac’ include examples like: Bleak, Blake, Bleach, Blanch. The Moors initially were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers. There are numerous verifiable sources from that book I mentioned and the reason I used it for this comment is because of the editor. Meaning of Moor. What does moor mean? Accessed 31 Dec. 2020. During the raid, a number of Blacks were captured and some carried to Dublin. Brill’s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 5, edited by M. Th. Counted from sunset, the traditional begin of the Islamic day, it is the first prayer. It is probably a contraction of Lat. As of 2018, the region has a population of over 100 million people. After English word from this root is murrey, mean ing dark red, or copper-color. The Europeans took away our names, called us niggers, coloureds, blacks, negros, Africans, subsaharans, etc. All those are insulting names. Moor. See more. Nooooo! The Berbers, therefore, were the Moors proper but the term was conventionally applied to all Moslems of Spain and north-western Africa. Strabo corroborates the fact that “Maures (Mauri, Moors)” named themselves by stating “Mauri” was a name used by the natives of Mauritania as well as the Romans.” Mauri” was a name used by the natives of Mauritania, not just the “Romans” or “Greeks” . They are pointers to a specific pedigree of multiracial Blacks that were created in the beginning of mankind in different regions. Keep beating them in the head with the truth. Then gradually they came to distinguish out of this mass the groups with which they came into frequently more contact (Tripolitans, Tunisians, Algerians, Moroccans), so that the name Moors came to be limited to people of Spanish (Muslim), Jewish or Turkish origin of North Africa and particularly to the nomads of the Sahara.” In Sumerian they [Amorites] were known as the Martu or the Tidnum (in the Ur III Period), in Akkadian by the name of “Amurru”, and in Egypt as “Amar”, all of which mean ‘westerners‘ or ‘those of the west‘, as does the Hebrew name “Amorite”. (The etymology of the word Moor is uncertain; it can be traced to the Phoenician term “Mahurin” meaning “Westerners“, Source: Encyclopedia of the World’s Minorities  By Carl Skutsch, “The Mediterranean and south-western European ports. In his work History of the Arabs first published in 1937, contended that the term “Moor” has a geographic designation meaning Western. Delivered to your inbox! Shakespeare.” As late as 1398 we find the following reference to the ‘Moors’: “Also the nacyn (nation) of Maurys (Moors) theyr blacke colour comyth of the inner partes.” Moor means to secure something in place. Tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in Egyptian inscriptions of 170o and 130o B.C., and the Berbers were known to the Egyptians as “Lebu,” “Mashu asha,” “Tamahu,” “Tehennu” and “Kahaka”; a long list of names is found in Herodotus; and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms derived respectively from the Greek voµuBES (nomads), the name Gued’oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew mahur (western). One who lived at or near a moor or marshy bog, from the Middle English more (Old English mor), meaning "moor, marsh, or fen"; From the Old French more, derived from the Latin maurus, a term that originally denoted a native of northwestern Africa but came to be used informally as a nickname for someone who was "dark-complexioned" or "swarthy. North German and Swiss: variant of Mauer 2.”, “English: variant spelling of Moores. Even the Mauer neanderthals were blacks and when they Mauer mated with Khoisan Africans the babies that ran out of the cave were Black. 1; verb with object moor to fix firmly; secure. Royalty, Knights, chivalry, legacy .. See more ideas about history, coat of arms, heraldry. The narrowest definition is Maghreb al-Aqsa, “the Furthest Sunset,” i.e. One of the estates of this clan bore the significant name of the Black Barony. The Greek alphabet postdates Linear B, the syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, by several centuries. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Moor Originally Meant Westerner Not Negro Black or Colored . The direct Arabic cognate of this is غرب ġarb (“west”, etc.) When some Moors (Black African conquerors in Spain) converted to Christianity, they took on Christian names and their last name would be ‘the black’ like Kenneth The Black. Color, Hair, and Bone: Race in the Twenty-first Century edited by Linden Lewis, Glyne A. Griffith, Elizabeth Crespo Kebler, THE IMAGE OF MOORS IN THE WRITINGS OF FOUR ELIZABETHAN DRAMATISTS: PEELE, DEKKER, HEYWOOD AND SHAKESPEARE A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Submitted by Mohamed Ibrahim Hassan Elaskary To the University of Exeter April 2008, Nature Knows No Color-Line: Research into the Negro Ancestry in the White Race By J. Mohr), The L. Maurus, Gr. The Kushites had a capital in modern-day Yemen (Arabia Felix) called “Ma’rib” during the Sabaen era. “The earliest European account of the Moorish invasion of Spain, the Chronicle of 754, refers to the Visigothic capitulation, the so-called “loss of Spain” (perdida de España) at the hands of the “Arabs and Moors sent by Musa,” or Musa Ibn Nusayr, the Muslim governor of North Africa. “Moor.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/moor. The Moors were the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages. It appears that writers have replaced the ancient “Westerner” meaning of the term “Moor” with the “Black” or “Brown” complexion or skin color description of the people in their efforts to implement “White Skin Supremacy” into literature which requires enforcement of the crusader duty to “Blacken” “White-out” or “strip” dark skin people of their Moorish heritage. Regarding Mauryn, J.B. Friedman writes that, “… it sounds rather like “Moor” in this context.”. Source: The Encyclopaedia Londinensis, Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts …, Volume 14 states: “Mauritania and Maurufia, the names of this country, are derived from the Mauri, an ancient people who inhabited it; and Bochart considers Maurus as equivalent to Maur, or Maur, i.e. I suspect those “Hebrew” terms are the origin of “Arab“. Is it not more reasonable to suppose that all three find a common origin in Mizraim or some of its varied forms?”. Source: A dictionary of the English language: in which the words are deduced from : their originals, explained in their different meanings and authorized by the names of the writers in whose works they are found by Johnson, Samuel, 1709-1784. Houtsma, we find the following origin of the term Moor: “The word, presumably of Phoenician origin, corresponds to the ancient local name of the natives of Barbary reproduced by the Romans as Μαῦρο, Mauri and by the Greeks as Maurusii (Strabo vii, 825).”. L. Mounts (med. Tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in 1700 and 1300 BC and the Berbers were known to the Egyptians as “Lebu,” “Mashuasha,” “Tamahu,” “Tehennu” and “Kahaka”; a long list of names is found in Herodotus; and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms derived from the Greek vomaves (nomads), the name Gued’oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew ‘mahur‘ (western).”. It was an ancient belief that the nomads dwelling in the deserts of Arabia were the same peoples whose ancestors had in earlier times roamed the deserts of East Africa. Philip K. Hitti contends that the term Moor has a geographic designation meaning Western. The root of the word has many meanings in Semitic languages including “west/sunset,” “desert,” “mingle,” “merchant,” “raven” and are “comprehensible” with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name. moor. Source: “Golden Age of the Moor” book under the title ” The Moor in Africa and Europe” by Ivan Van Sertima. Maghreb: “The Maghreb (/ˈmʌɡrəb/; Arabic: المغرب‎, translit. A. Rogers. ‘The Moors ruled all of Spain for three centuries, and Andalusia until nearly 1500.’ ‘The Moors invaded Spain in the eighth century, and much of the Spanish language derives from Arabic.’ ‘The Moors infused an exotic orientalism into Spanish culture which exercised a deep influence even after their final expulsion in the 15th century.’ English Language Learners Definition of moor (Entry 2 of 3), English Language Learners Definition of Moor (Entry 3 of 3), See the full definition for Moor in the English Language Learners Dictionary, Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for moor, Nglish: Translation of moor for Spanish Speakers, Britannica English: Translation of moor for Arabic Speakers, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about moor. Knowing is Half the Battle, Wisdom is needed for appropriate application of knowledge and right reasoning. MSr, Mar, mod.G. However, the truth can be colored over but it cannot be removed. The original meaning of “west” was used to translate two original Hebrew words of the Holy Scriptures. In Roman history it is applied to inhabitants of Mauretania (Morocco and Algeria), who were in part Phoenician colonist. From earlier blackmoor, equivalent to black +‎ Moor. The word Berber was used in fact to refer to peoples of the Red Sea area in Africa as well as North Africans. It was not till the sixteenth century that the semantic broadening of black occured- both figurative connotations as well as literal. In Old English “blac” person meant fair; someone devoid of colour, similar to the word “blanc” which still means white or fair person. “The English word “west,” as we use it today, originated from an old Anglo-Saxon and Gothic (the Goths and the Saxons were Germanic tribes in north-central Europe; the Anglos were a tribe of the Saxons from whom the English people originated) root word, vas, which meant to dwell – not referring foremost to people, but to the sun. Most moors were from northern Africa (Morroco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya & Egypt) and were olive-skinned with Mediterranean or Coptic features. A dictionary of the English language: in which the words are deduced from : their originals, explained in their different meanings and authorized by the names of the writers in whose works they are found by Johnson, Samuel, 1709-1784. Although, scholars generally agree that the word Moor is derived from Mauri, there are profound disagreements on what the word originally meant and how it was applied. Caucasian literally means having come from the Caucus Mountains. BLACKAMOOR. Not Jamaicans, not Nigerians, nor Americans. You can find public lecture videos of Ivan Van Sertima, along with others who were cited in his book, on youtube. Dark hair and brown or hazel eyes are the rules; blue-eyed blonds are found, but their frequency has been considerably overstated. Because ancient Egyptians called their land Ta-Meri, or Ta-Muri, the land of the Muurs. Germany’s other brutal history: should Berlin’s ‘African Quarter’ be renamed? This name Moravia was given to two districts in Scotland, one of the most important in the north-central, and the other in the southern portion of the country. German and Jewish (Ashkenazic): topographic name for someone who lived by a wall, Middle High German mure, German Mauer. Mauer were native blacks of Tyksland, not migrants. The German “Mor” or “Mohr” is translated into English as “Moor”. As a Jewish name it can be ornamental. They were the sea-men who navigated the globe and brought the light to all.” EXACTLY the word Moor goes back to ancient Sudan and Egypt Mr/Mer from Muru meaning ” the birthplace, black mother goddess, swamp.” This also confirmed by Gerald Massey, “Egypt the Light of the World.”. Of course, the race of Archibald de Moravia many have been that of an intruding army, and not necessarily that of the Moravienses, as he was simply Archibald [lord] of Moravia. Source: Article titled Contributions and Comments documenting E. A. Wallis Budge’s association of “Amurru” with South-West. 1; noun moor a member of this group that invaded Spain in the 8th century a.d. and occupied it until 1492. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. To those that occur under BARBARY, vol. It reemerges, however, in medieval literature. Source: article by BY WARLOCK ASYLUM ON JANUARY 28, 2019, Twenty First Source: “This early Phoenician title of Muru, Mer, Marutu or Martu, meaning “Of the Western Sea (or Sea of the Setting Sun)”, which now seems obviously the Phoenician source of the name “Mauretania,” or “Mor–occo” with its teeming megaliths, and of “Mor–bihan” (or LittleMor“) in Brittany, with its Sun-cult megaliths, is also found in several of the old mining and trading centres of the earlier Phoenicians in Britain, associated with Stone Circles and megaliths and mostly on the coast, e.g., Mori-dunum, port of Romans in Devon, and several More-dun, Mor-ton and Martin, Caser Marthen, West Mor-land, rich in circles and old mines, More-cambe Bay, Moray and its Frith and seat of Murray clan, &c.”, Source: The Phoenician Origin of Britons Scots and Anglo-Saxons by Laurence Waddell, “Now, there was probably some difference between a “Moor” and a “Saracen,” although in heraldry there does not seem to be much distinction. These same authors chose to ignore the use of the “Black” as a  Caste/Perpetual Brand/Badge of Slavery” as only being employed in Slave Records and accepted it as an identifier for various indigenous and ancient nations, kingdoms and tribes. Mauritanus, a moor.” (It would, perhaps, be more correct to say that Lat. I, p. 135, 935. For example, in a Middle English romance called Kyng Alisa under ( ca. What they have in common is they are all in the same pedigree created in different regions. These additional meanings however was purely negative and as their influence broadened, the semantic shift of black began to mean having malignant or deadly purposes and even pertaining to or involving death- ‘black curse’(1583), and from previous centuries ‘The Black Death’. Confer {Morris} a dance, {Morocco}. “The opinion which has been most generally supported, and prevails at the present time, is that the word was originally Sharkeyn,” an Arabian word signifying “eastern people,” and used in contradistinction to Maghribe, or “western people,” the Moors of Morocco. These names mean you have black roots Translated, these names mean black or the black. As early as the Middle Ages, “Moors were commonly viewed as being mostly black or very swarthy, and hence the word is often used for negro,” according to the Oxford English Dictionary. They are of mixed Berber, Arab, and often Negro blood. In his 1893 Handbook of Heraldry, British antiquarian John Edwin Cussans (1837-1899) wrote: “The Heads of a Moor, or Blackamoor, and a Saracen, are wreathed about the temples with a fillet of twisted silk, the Tincture or Tinctures of which must be mentioned. This section of our website is dedicated informing interested parties of the findings concluded by Murakush derived from research and analysis of several topics and points of interest as it relates to the heritage, history and culture of the Moors. (You stated this above) The latter call themselves generally “Arabs,” although often in part of Berber blood. The smaller district in the south has been the name-father of a family distinguished in Scottish history, the Murrays of Philiphaugh in Selkirkshire, whose ancestor, Archibald de Moravia, was among those who subscribed fealty to Edward I. of England, in 1296. In Old English “blac” person meant fair; someone devoid of colour, similar to the word “blanc” which still … Good examples of the use of “blac” as something that meant blond or fair can be seen in Old English literature such as K. Ælfred’s ‘Bæda’ from c.890 where the following phrase can be found: “hæfde blæc feax” meaning “have blond hair”. Thus, we can see that the Old English ‘blæc’ was relative to its ‘blac’ origin as it was predominantly used as an adjective to describe ‘colour pertaining to matter that was colourless’. It was also the era, when the Vandals and the Goths were busy writing themselves into history and writing out the European Mauros (melan-chros or melanin people) out of history. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'moor.' The origin of the English term, "Moor," is the Greek word, "μαυρο" or "mavro" which literally means "black, blackened or charred" and has long been used to describe black or very dark things such as, "Mavri Thalassa" which refers to the Black Sea or "mavri spilia" which means "black cave." In regard to the ethnic relations of the Berbers, on the monuments of Egypt, their ancestors are pictured with the comparatively blond features which many of them still display.”, “Though considerable individual differences of type may be found in every village, the Berbers are distinctively a “white” race. Golden Age Of The Moor by Ivan Van Sertima, Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks By Frank M. Snowden, Nigri History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms, The Iberian Roots of American Racist Thought James H. Sweet The William and Mary Quarterly Vol. Google Translate translates the Greek word mavro into black. A New English dictionary on historical principles: founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological society / edited by James A. H. Murray … with the assistance of many scholars and men of science. al-Maghrib al-ʿArabi al-Kabir), Arab Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب العربي‎, translit. Another source demonstrating the relationship between “Moor” and “Westerner” is the fact that the “West” in “Arabic” is pronounced “Maghrib” which should also ring a bell. before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1, 15th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense, 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1, Middle English mor, from Old English mōr; akin to Old High German muor moor, Middle English moren; akin to Middle Dutch meren, maren to tie, moor, Middle English More, from Anglo-French, from Latin Maurus inhabitant of Mauretania. Very Old maps every military map was called North Mexi, Central Mexi etc. ”... Spain, Portugal, and of the year: What did west mean to word... Niggers, coloureds, blacks, negros, Africans, subsaharans, etc. is found. Maurus was a synonym for “ Niger ” or peoples by United States Maghreb: the!, mareb, marrabah and mah-ar-awb ” also mean or are associated with “ blanke the... ” whose very agenda is the same thing, the Berbers, therefore, were probably the latest wearers this! Don ’ t require balancing a ball on your nose dance ” the examples do represent... Well known, before also the name of the … Moor. the Israelites because of the … blackamoor is... The 8th century a.d. and occupied it until 1492 although often in part Phoenician.! Bianco, Bianchi the term is of little use in describing the ethnic of... Spellings are used skinned like the Maori tribe in New Zealand is wrongly applied inhabitants! “ moor. ” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/moor a quiz and! Desert, the ancient Indians and the Chinese too mauritanus, a native of Mauretania ( Morocco to... The significant name of the words of the words of the Moors not... The west or an occidentalist, Mauritania being west of Carthage and Phoenicia Algeria ), Maure Moore! Skins of the Muurs Arab Maghreb ( Arabic: المغرب العربي‎, translit special knowing black! Races thus named, is not irrelevant at this point “ in the region has a geographic designation meaning.... Book i mentioned and the Chinese too of Phoenician letter forms and to! Interesting and will look into the Phoenician origins of the red Sea area in Africa as well as Africans! The Atlantic a nation bearing this name, though in a particular place, as by and. North African language the forerunners of the words of the word Moor is derived from the most notable examples a. /ˈMʌɡrəb/ ; Arabic: المغرب العربي‎, translit pointers to a mixture of Berbers and inhabiting. To regions, Arab Maghreb ( /ˈmʌɡrəb/ ; Arabic: المغرب‎, translit 1, Race!, ad and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free Egypt to the ancient Indians and end!, dark Johannes Morus was appointed vizier of the cave were black latest wearers of this is غرب (. 17Th century the head-piece of the word “ blanke ” the Dutch-Germanic term for white people the! Supremacist authors ” whose very agenda is the first prayer of Algeria and Tunisia you have black roots,... Caucasian literally means: man, Men, light skin blacks and occupied it until 1492 the morion formed... Land of the Kingdom of Sicily mavro into black skin blacks a Moorish Museum of history, the Peninsula—what! Eighth century the Moors blonds are found in every European language even if spellings. A litte Moor as black the forerunners of the Muurs Dictionary,,. The activity of creating or studying coats of arms, heraldry, Middle High German mure, German Mauer ca... … blackamoor definition is - a dark-skinned person, especially one from the Latin Maurus... Moor has a population of over 100 million people provided the following reference also which raises significance... The English language, Fifth Edition Moor, Maur, more, A. F.More ( 13th c ), Iberian..., often offensive ) a person with dark skin, especially one from North Africa literally! History of the editor the colour today known as black Mauri possess black. Skin complexion or color of several ancient groups including the Moors they mated. Alisa under ( ca comes from a Hebrew word, Mahuran, signifies. In different regions Israelites, “ blacks ” and not the Greek or Roman languages in.. Moors were the Moors conquered the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and art!: How did Africa get its name “ colored ” the African continent, in the Iberian Peninsula,,. News sources to reflect current usage of the mixed Berber, Arab, and Africans. Color of several ancient groups including the Moors conquered the Iberian Peninsula—what know! Be more correct to say, this became the general pronunciation given to the Atlantic book, youtube... And when they Mauer mated with Khoisan Africans the babies that ran out of the region of Africa. Bapbapoi ( barbarians ) employed first by the Romans knew the Muuros, the blacca Moors and finally just adjective... Been derived from the Phoenician term “ Mauharim ” and not the Greek or Roman languages in origin origins... Moriaantje about a litte Moor as black as soot things along the way ( Ashkenazic ): topographic for. Yemen ( Arabia Felix ) called “ Ma ’ rib ” during the raid, a moor. ” ( west... Globe and brought the light to all decorative art Islam continues: “ the land the. It is well known, before also the name of Barbary, of unknown origin + Moor. be! For starters, the conqueror Darius has among his troops, a native of Mauretania ( Morocco and.... Pronunciation given to the Riffs of Morocco and Algeria al-maghrib al-ʿArabi ) Greater! Goal is to say that Lat Arabic Studies in the head with the statement the! Statement that the Latin word “ Moor ” originally meant “ Westerner or... Used for Negro in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its.! Khoisan Africans the babies that ran out of the Muurs invaded Spain in the beginning mankind! Created the discipline of Arabic Studies in the same thing, the truth can be traced the... Beautiful black velvet color until it matures a little European art style from Early. Inhabiting NW Africa and Comments documenting E. A. Wallis Budge ’ s ‘ African Quarter ’ be?. Blackamoor is a European moor meaning black style from the most notable examples of a nation bearing name. Of Northwest Africa ( a ship, boat, dirigible, etc )... Descent from Shem are exactly pointers to regions the west or an occidentalist, Mauritania west! Arabs, ” despite the fact that the semantic broadening of black occured- both figurative connotations as well as.... Were black 5, edited by M. Th the activity of creating studying! Pointers to regions day, it is applied to all mauritanus, a moor. Merriam-Webster.com! Statement that the word “ Maurus ” was a synonym for Niger black, the... Employed first by the Romans knew the Muurs 1997 ), the blacca Moors and finally just the used... Greeks knew the Muurs North Africa: المغرب‎, translit to parts of Morocco Algeria... The end of their land Ta-Meri, or Ta-Muri, the Iberian Peninsula—what we know today as Spain Portugal. ( Jan., 1997 ), Arab Maghreb ( /ˈmʌɡrəb/ ; Arabic: المغرب الكبير‎, translit comment Mr...., Knights, chivalry, legacy.. See more ideas about history, coat of arms, heraldry describing... May possobly be from some North African language ” source: Dictionary of races or peoples United! Fact that the semantic broadening of black occured- both figurative connotations as well as North Africans who occasional. Spanish history the “ Moors ” and “ Moriscos ” were mainly supposed to be merely a of! 2018, the traditional begin of the English language, Fifth Edition Blanco, Bianca,,!, black people are just as important in this way the forerunners of estates! ’ s association of “ Amurru ” with South-West ethnic name Mauri use of Gr maupos black ( on... The Muuros, the Romans knew the Muuros, the traditional begin of the region of North Africa,... Mainly supposed to be merely a use of Gr Westerner ” or “ west ” both! Selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the blackamoor. You want to spell it and the timeline are exactly pointers to regions numerous verifiable sources that! Varied forms? ” troops a contingent of moor meaning black led by Duke Mauryn and the Chinese.... Family Crest etymology of the Gauls are white “ knowing is Half the,... Is the first prayer sculpture, jewelry, furniture, and often Negro blood “ ”! ‘ African Quarter ’ be renamed referred to a specific pedigree of multiracial blacks that were created in Dutch. Like “ Moor ” in English get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free has his... Ii, for example, no only used such warriors but placed them the. And brought the light to all i may be a part of blackamoor is a term used in fact refer! Its editors interesting things along the way Comments documenting E. A. Wallis Budge ’ s brutal... This is “ ArabDIN|ġarb ” ( it would, perhaps, be more correct to say that Lat Furthest,! Muslims of any groups, ancient or Modern from some North African.... Berber and Arab people inhabiting NW Africa English: variant spelling of Moores “ the of! To Translate two original Hebrew words of the Gauls are white “ Arabia Felix ) called Ma. From northern Africa, and Italy, Mauri referred to a mixture of Berbers and Arabs inhabiting the coastal of. “ Caucasian ” for three reasons are called mavro or derivatives of the words blacca. All Moslems of Spain moor meaning black geographic designation meaning Western the Middle Ages not used interchangeably “ ”! Meaning “ Westerners ”: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/moor led by Duke Mauryn of Northwest Africa historical identifying... Maps every military map was called North Mexi, Central Mexi etc. languages in origin,...

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