toluene nerve damage

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Patients with these polymorphisms may develop toxicity with a lower dose of a drug or toxin. Extent of myelin and axonal loss in patients is highly variable, possibly due to extent of exposure, age of onset of toluene abuse, coexistent abuse of other substances, or polymorphisms in the gene encoding the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase. Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, often but not always in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed. There will be no recovery with neurotmesis. Both acute and chronic encephalopathies are common (1). Data on the extent of this practice are difficult to acquire, but available estimates are likely to be under-representative. The first report of the fetal solvent syndrome in 1979 (60) described facial dysmorphia, growth retardation, and microcephaly similar to the fetal alcohol syndrome (60, 61). The myelin loss was milder, more uniform, and the borders between severely depleted and moderately demyelinated areas were ill defined; features identical to those seen in our original case (41). methylbenzene . The acute encephalopathic effects of toluene are generally reversible and not associated with neuroimaging changes. Concomitant use of several different chemicals of abuse could also potentiate the myelin damage from toluene, a possibility discussed by Kornfeld et al (43). This deficiency could result in higher brain exposure to toluene and a heightened risk of neurotoxicity (6, 49). 2E), and trilaminar inclusions by EM (Fig. Fibrillation is present and the injury usually requires surgery (Figure 13). In 1961, Grabski documented chronic cerebellar degeneration in a person who sniffed toluene for an extended period, and this individual was the first published case documenting persistent neurotoxicity from toluene (13). Toluene-4-sulfonic acid tetrahydro-furan-3-ylmethyl ester. There will be partial or complete recovery of the nerve and Wallerian degeneration occurs distal to the injury site. University of Colorado School of Medicine. In recent decades the organic solvent toluene (methylbenzene) has emerged as one of the best-studied neurotoxins. These findings suggest that toluene leukoencephalopathy, perhaps even among those exposed to toluene in the workplace, might be detectable at earlier stages with newer advanced neuroimaging techniques that are more sensitive to microstructural leukoencephalopathy. Left untreated, nerve damage may worsen over time. PAS-positive macrophages (also immunoreactive with CD-68 and HAM-56) were most abundant in areas of greatest myelin loss, and identical to our original case (41), “even in tracts with well-preserved myelin, scattered PAS-positive macrophages were present” (43). PDF | BACKGROUND: Toluene was an organic compound used in chemical and drug industries, the main source of toluene emissions from fires. Removal (amputation) of a toe, foot or even the lower leg may be necessary. In contrast, the verbal IQ, a measure that more specifically reflects language function, was not associated with white matter changes (23). Case 1 was a 33-year-old man with a history of paint and glue sniffing since age 11, and Case 2 was a 41-year-old woman who had been addicted to paint sniffing for at least 9 years and died while inhaling paint fumes and drinking alcohol. The health impacts of lead exposure in children include anemia, behavioral disorders, low IQ, reading and learning disabilities, and nerve damage. Most of the available toxicity studies relate to exposure via inhalation. Direct damage to the retina, though associated with some therapeutic agents, is rarely associated with neurotoxin exposure. Tualeka AR, Rahmawati P, Ahsan A, Pathak Y, Russeng SS, Sukarmin S, Wahyu A. Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by a number of different medical conditions, such as diabetes and cancer. Although gliosis was not evident on the Holzer and phosphotungstic-acid-hematoxylin methods for glia available to us at the time of the report, recent reexamination of this case with immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) demonstrated reactive gliosis even in cerebral white matter areas where myelin loss was undetectable. Taken together, these studies provide substantial evidence that a unique profile of neurobehavioral deficits in toluene abusers can be directly attributed to cerebral white matter involvement. Organic solvents may produce encephalopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, optic and other cranial neuropathies, parkinsonism, and peripheral neuropathy (1, 4, 5). A component of many paints, lacquers, glues, adhesives, inks, and cleaning fluids, toluene is also widely used as a cleaning and drying agent in the rubber and lumber industries, and in the dry cleaning, motor, aviation, and chemical industries (1). A recent Forensic Pathology Check Sample case (FP00–2), from the American Society of Clinical Pathologists, reminds coroners and forensic pathologists of the potential for sudden demise during episodes of acute toluene inhalation. Pathophysiology of Toluene Brain Damage. Rosenberg NL, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Davis KA, Dreisbach JN, Hormes JT, Filley CM. Although conventional MRI allows visualization of detailed neuroanatomy, especially the cerebral white matter (7), it is not sufficiently sensitive to detect the earliest stages of white matter damage from toluene. … It occurs when the macrophages of an individual's own immune system damage the myelin sheaths that insulate the axon of the nerve. An autopsied patient with chronic lacquer-thinner intoxication reported in 1976 showed peripheral neuropathy and long tract degeneration (44). These fumes can strip the myelin insulation from nerve cells throughout the brain, sometimes inflicting severe brain damage. At autopsy the brain showed cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and severe thinning of the corpus callosum. Filley CM Franklin GM Rosenberg NL Heaton RK. Repeated exposure to toluene can cause permanent central nervous system effects, and can damage the liver, kidney, and upper respiratory system. Parkinson disease), and the cerebral white matter each manifest a distinctive constellation of cognitive and emotional disturbances. The spectrum of leukoencephalopathy in toluene abuse as demonstrated by brain MRI. Toluene abuse in pregnancy causes a constellation of teratogenic features known as fetal solvent syndrome, which is similar to the fetal alcohol syndrome. More recent studies have also reported Purkinje cell loss and hippocampal neuronal loss in rats with inhalation exposure (55). Another microvascular complication caused by nerve damage is diabetic neuropathy. cranial nerve dysfunction as the most disabling aspect of. Traductions en contexte de "nerve" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : nerve cells, have the nerve, optic nerve, nerve gas, nerve stimulation A serious health concern is that toluene may have an effect on your nervous system (brain and nerves). 1B). A 1977 report of neurologic findings in two individuals with toluene exposure suggested that the toxic effects of the solvent were confined to the CNS (15). The pathogenic action of toluene after localizing in white matter, however, is uncertain. The clinical syndrome, toluene leukoencephalopathy, can be detected by a combination of characteristic symptoms and signs, detailed neurobehavioral evaluation, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. In other cases, direct damage to a nerve may occur during an addict’s attempt to gain access to a vein, and the median nerve in the antecubital fossa and femoral nerve in the groin are particularly prone. She was a known substance abuser and had been described as often being intoxicated and “smelling of glue.” Neither detailed neurological examinations nor neuroimaging were performed in life and she died by hanging. Biochemical analyses also showed increases in very long chain fatty acids in brain, further mimicking ALD. system depression, nerve damage. USA.gov. Facial nerve damage from dental malpractice or any other types of accidents can permanently change your appearance and deprive you of essential functions. Cell Mol Neurobiol. A variety of unusual brainstem signs were noted in some patients, including opsoclonus, ocular flutter, and ocular dysmetria (19). In this paper, we consider the impact of toluene abuse on our society, describe the specific neurobehavioral deficits in toluene leukoencephalopathy, review the spectrum of neuroimaging findings in patients with this disorder, summarize the teratogenic effects of toluene in both humans and animal models, and offer possible explanations for the range of neuropathological damage seen in brains of individuals who chronically abuse toluene. Workers may be harmed from exposure to toluene. The insensitivity of standard MRI to mild degrees of toluene leukoencephalopathy hampers early detection of individuals at risk, and it is therefore possible that a crucial opportunity for effective intervention is lost. Graph theory analysis of the dopamine D2 receptor network in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive decline. Chronic encephalopathy from toluene, a disorder known as toluene leukoencephalopathy, is an ominous sequel of this form of substance abuse and features a prominent and characteristic neurological syndrome, the most important feature of which is dementia (1, 7). Epub 2013 Apr 15. In the first long term look at how solvents affect the brain, researchers say some chemicals are linked to cognitive problems 30 years after exposure Author information: (1)Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, … Caldemeyer KS Pascuzzi RM Moran CG Smith RS. The patient reported by Escobar et al also showed severe myelin, axon, and neuronal loss, and was acknowledged to abuse both “thinner” and “glue;” the authors acknowledged that he was therefore exposed to both toluene and n-hexane (40). Clinical features of acute intoxication with toluene were first described in 1963 (11). Asparagine Synthetase Deficiency with Intracranial Hemorrhage Can Mimic Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency. Disorders of the muscles, cardiovascular effects, renal tubular damage, and sudden death have occurred in chronic abusers of toluene. In addition, the degree of myelination that exists in the individual when inhalant abuse begins may play a role in host susceptibility to toluene leukoencephalopathy. Hearing loss and cleft palate may also be seen (66). The clinical syndrome, toluene leukoencephalopathy, can be detected by a combination of characteristic symptoms and signs, detailed neurobehavioral evaluation, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. production is toluene. As mentioned, this solvent, like many others, is highly lipophilic , and in laboratory animals toluene is preferentially distributed in lipid-rich regions of the brain . Toluene (C₆H₅CH₃) is a colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent odor. The clinical severity of toluene leukoencephalopathy parallels the degree of white matter injury in the brain as seen by neuroimaging studies, and accordingly, toluene has become a prototypical brain white matter neurotoxin (7). The chronic encephalopathy associated with long-term toluene abuse is particularly important because it appears to be a permanent and disabling disorder related to white matter damage in the brain. Cranial nerve VIII is the least affected component of the ear when ototoxicity arises, but if the nerve is affected, the damage is most often permanent. Ask your doctor to recommend what other types of doctors, physicians, medical specialists, or other medical professionals should be part of the team for your medical issues. However, a single 1996 study reported subtle white matter changes on MRI scans in solvent-exposed workers (31) and raised the possibility that some workers may develop subtle, mild degrees of white matter damage (7). More than 3 million tons of toluene are produced each year in the United States alone (6), and this solvent is found in many occupational settings and in numerous household products. Moreover, the observed deficits demonstrated a significant degree of correlation with the degree of cerebral white matter injury (24). Nerve damage can distort existing signals, create new signals, or prevent the usual signals from transferring. Medical personnel do not regularly see many chronic toluene abusers and most abusers are notoriously poor historians, due in part to their encephalopathy. Gross brain abnormalities were more readily detectable in Case 1, which showed thinning of the corpus callosum and gray, patchy discoloration and mottling of the cerebral white matter with sparing of the U-fibers. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Central nervous system impairment and visual impairment. Knitting, typing, and tying your shoes may become difficult. Tualeka AR(1), Rahmawati P(2), Ahsan A(3), Pathak Y(4), Russeng SS(5), Sukarmin S(6), Wahyu A(7). Subsequently, an eloquent neuropathological study of two paint sniffers appeared in 1994 in this journal (43). Even though most abusers start using inhalants at a young age, they often continue this form of substance abuse for many years. Because toluene is also part of the glue used by paint huffers, it has been suggested as a potential cause of the neurotoxic syndrome observed in these individuals. 2B). Nerve damage is treated with conservative therapy or surgery. E-mail, Sequences of substance use among American Indian adolescents, Clinical neurotoxicology and neurobehavioral toxicology, Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures, The central nervous system and exposure to toluene: A risk characterization, The behavioral neurology of cerebral white matter, Renal tubular acidosis associated with toluene “sniffing.”, Toluene sniffing producing cerebellar degeneration, Permanent encephalopathy from toluene inhalation, Persistent cerebellar ataxia after exposure to toluene, Effects of paint sniffing on neuropsychological test performance, Neuropsychological deficits in chronic inhalant abusers, Multifocal central nervous system damage caused by toluene abuse, Cerebellar, cortical and functional impairment in toluene abusers, Neurologic sequelae of chronic solvent vapor abuse, White matter dementia in chronic toluene abuse, Effects of MRI abnormalities on WAIS-R performance in solvent abusers, Neuropsychologic impairment and MRI abnormalities associated with chronic solvent abuse, White matter dementiaClinical disorders and implications. Toluene is retained somewhat longer in adipose tissue, where its half-life is 0.5 to 3 days (9). Data from 1994 disclosed that 19.9% of eighth graders reported that they had used inhalants, with 5.6% reporting use within the past 30 days (1). After blinded ratings of both neuropsychological testing and MRI scans were independently conducted, the level of cognitive impairment, often sufficient to be called dementia, was found to correlate directly with the severity of leukoencephalopathy detected on MRI (22). This type of damage often occurs as a natural part of the aging process. eCollection 2020 Dec. Molecules. Quist AJL, Rohlman DS, Kwok RK, Stewart PA, Stenzel MR, Blair A, Miller AK, Curry MD, Sandler DP, Engel LS. Evidence indicated that the toluene originated from bituminous deposits. Also, it can sometimes make non-pain signals feel painful. Sensory neuropathy. The process can result in multiple areas of scarring (sclerosis). Your skin will also become numb. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. 2A), and the cerebellar white matter (Fig. Psychiatr Clin North Am. Animal and human research shows that most inhalants are extremely toxic. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Neuropathy, also called peripheral neuropathy, refers to damage to the peripheral nerves - nerves that carry information between the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Aim: Neuroprotective effects of ebselen against free radical damage have been studied extensively. 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Advanced features are temporarily unavailable voice, the main source of toluene are generally reversible and not associated some... Mccartney R Popovtser M Scrier RW Interruption ], of which dementia is the most common disease! Matter hyperintensity and marked ventricular enlargement and cerebral atrophy, with better preservation of subcortical U-fibers ( 41 ) and. Myelin, which has been practiced since long in medical science liquid with a lower dose of a Family neuronal... An infection can spread to the bone or lead to tissue death debris ( Fig including opsoclonus ocular. Over 200,000 tons per year -- 2000 relies on their voice, the possibility exists that in.

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